Aldrich Black Collection (OHS)

Aldrich, Gene. Black Heritage of Oklahoma (Edmond, OK: Thompson Book and Supply Co., 1973)

Alexander, Charles. The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995)

American Red Cross of Central Oklahoma Collection (box 1, folder 4, OHS)

Andrews, Thomas F. "Freedmen in Indian Territory: A Post Civil War Dilemma," Journal of the West 4 (July 1965)

Bailey, Minnie E. Reconstruction in Indian Territory, A Story of Avarice, Discrimination, and Opportunism (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1972)

"Brooksville" (vertical file, OHS)

Carney, George. "Historic Resources of Oklahoma's All-Black Towns: A Preservation Profile," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 69 (Summer 1991)

Clark, Carter Blue. A History of the Ku Klux Klan in Oklahoma, (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1976)

Crockett, Norman. The Black Towns (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1979)

Currie Ballard Collection (OHS)

Darcy, R. "Constructing Segregation: Race Politics in the Territorial Legislature, 1890–1907," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 86 (Fall 2008)

Ellsworth, Scott. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982)

Evans, Angela, Community in Contrast and Through the Lens of Change (Tulsa People, June 2017). 

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. Journey Toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982)

Franklin, John Hope and Scott Ellsworth, eds. The Tulsa Race Riot: A Scientific, Historical and Legal Analysis (Oklahoma City: Tulsa Race Riot Commission, 2000)

Gates, Eddie Faye, They Came Searching: How Blacks Sought the Promised Land in Tulsa (Eddie Faye Gates, 1997).

Gates, Eddie Faye, Riot on Greenwood: The Total Destruction of Black Wall Street (Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 2003).

Gerkin, Steve, “ Hidden History of Tulsa “  (The History Press, 2014 )

Gray, Linda. "Taft: Town on the Black Frontier," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 66 (Winter 1988–89)

Grinde, Donald A. and Quintard Taylor. "Red vs. Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post Civil War Indian Territory," American Indian Quarterly 10 (Summer 1984)

Hamilton, Kenneth. "Townsite Speculation and the Origin of Boley, Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 55 (Summer 1977)

Hower, Robert N. "Angels of Mercy": The American Red Cross and the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot (Tulsa, OK: Homestead Press, 1993)

Johnson, Hannibal B. “Apartheid in Indian Country?” Seeing Red over Disenfranchisement (Eakin Press, 2012 )

Johnson, Hannibal B. “ From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District”, (Eakin Press, 1999 )

Johnson, Hannibal B. “ Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District “  ( Images of America ) , 2014

Johnson, Hannibal B. “ Up From The Ashes “ : A Story about Building A Community. ( Eakin Press , 1999)

Madigan, Timothy “ The Burning “ ; Massacre, Destruction, and the Race Riot of 1921 ( St. Martin’s Griffin 2003)

Mellinger, Phillip. "Discrimination and Statehood in Oklahoma," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (Autumn 1971)

Minor Collections (M1998.032, location 1210.01, OHS)

Larry O'Dell Collection (OHS)

Little, Mabel B., Fire On Mount Zion: My Life And History As A Black Woman In America (San Francisco, CA: Black Think Tank, 1992).

Owens, J.P. Clearview (Okemah, OK: J.P. Owens, 1995)

Parrish, Mary E. Jones, Events of the Tulsa Disaster (Tulsa, OK: Out on a Limb Publishing, 1998)

Patrick J. Hurley Collection (OHS)

Patterson, Zella and Lynette Wert, Langston University: A History (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979)

Porter, Kenneth W. The Negro on the American Frontier (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1971)

Roberson, Jere W. "Edward P. McCabe and the Langston Experiment," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 51 (Fall 1973)

Shepard, Bruce. "North to the Promised Land: Black Migration to the Canadian Plains," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 66 (Fall 1988)

"Taft" (vertical file, WPA Writers' Project, 1937, OHS)

Teall, Kaye M. Black History in Oklahoma: A Resource Book (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Public Schools, 1971)

Thompson, Don C., Hush Somebody's Callin My Name (Don Thompson Images, 2008).

Thompson, Don C., And My Spirit Said, Yes! (Trabar Communications LLC, 2015).

Tucker, Howard A. A History of Governor Walton's War on the Ku Klux Klan, The Invisible Empire (Oklahoma City: Southwest Publishing Co., 1923)

"Tullahassee" (vertical file, WPA Writers' Project, OHS)

"Tulsa Race Riot: A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921." Oklahoma Commission to the Study of the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, February 28, 2001

Tulsa Race Riot Commission Materials (boxes 1–16, OHS)

"Vernon" (vertical file, WPA Writers' Project, OHS)

Wilson, Walt. "Freedmen in Indian Territory During Reconstruction," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 49 (Summer 1971)




Ellsworth, Scott. "Tulsa Race Riot"
O'Dell, Larry. "All-Black Towns," "Ku Klux Klan," "Senate Bill One"
Reese, Linda. "Freedmen"
Smallwood, James M. "Segregation"



Ella Mahler Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)

LaQuita Headley Collection (OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Photograph Collection (photographs, box 1, OHS)

Tulsa Race Riot Commission Materials (boxes 1–16, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Film and Video Archives, YouTube Channel


Through the Looking Glass Darkly, Part 3 (WKY-TV Film Collection, OHS)

WKY News Can #52 (1957) (WKY-TV Film Collection, OHS)

Oklahoma Historical Society Oral History Collection


Bill Snodgrass interview, 5/9/1985 (H1985.092)

Bob Hower interview, 4/17/2003 (H2003.017)

Charles Davis interview, 1978 (H1987.053)

Earkysee Sutton interview, 5/14/1987 (H1982.029)

Ethelyn Gimlin interview, 5/13/1983 (H1983.109)

Henry James interview, 7/30/1986 (H19863.047)

Herman Padgett interview, 7/19/1988 (H1988.104)

James Harold Davis interview, 12/22/1988 (1988.142)

Jesse James interview, 7/29/1986 (H1986.042)

John E. Kirkpatrick interview, 6/22/1967 (LL 43, Living Legends Oral History Collection)

Maxine Horner interview, 7/7/1999 (H1999.081)

Ressie Rogers interview, 6/9/1986 (H1986.028)

Ruth Powers interview, 5/5/1983 (H1983.101)

Rosa Davis Skinner interview (H2012.099.014, North Tulsa Oral History Project)

Sally Nash interview (Indian-Pioneer Papers)

Waldo Jones interview (H2012.099.004, North Tulsa Oral History Project)



Bruce Fisher interview, Chapter 4

Margery Mayo Bird interview, Chapter 12

Nancy Feldman interview, Chapter 7

Otis Clark interview, Chapter 3–5

Ray Feldman interview, Chapter 17

Reuben Gant, Voices of Oklahoma, Chapters 12–15

Rex Calvert interview, Voices of Oklahoma, Chapter 2






Tolson, Arthur. The Black Oklahomans: A History, 1541–1972 (New Orleans, LA: Edwards Printing Company, 1973)

Washington, Booker T. "Boley, a Negro Town in the West," Outlook 88 (4 January 1908)

African Americans of Oklahoma: Traveling Trunk and Traveling Exhibit

Vocabulary Words & Concepts